Artificial intelligence (AI) makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. Most AI examples that you hear about today – from chess-playing computers to self-driving cars – rely heavily on deep learning and natural language processing. Using these technologies, computers can be trained to accomplish specific tasks by processing large amounts of data and recognizing patterns in the data.
Artificial Intelligence History
The history of Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with “an ancient wish to forge the gods.
The field of AI research was founded at a workshop held on the campus of Dartmouth College during the summer of 1956. Those who attended would become the leaders of AI research for decades. Many of them predicted that a machine as intelligent as a human being would exist in no more than a generation and they were given millions of dollars to make this vision come true.
Early AI research in the 1950s explored topics like problem solving and symbolic methods. In the 1960s, the US Department of Defense took interest in this type of work and began training computers to mimic basic human reasoning. For example, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) completed street mapping projects in the 1970s. And DARPA produced intelligent personal assistants in 2003, long before Siri, Alexa or Cortana were household names.
How Artificial Intelligence Works?
AI works by combining large amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms, allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns or features in the data. AI is a broad field of study that includes many theories, methods and technologies, as well as the following major subfields:
Machine Learning: – automates analytical model building. It uses methods from neural networks, statistics, operations research and physics to find hidden insights in data without explicitly being programmed for where to look or what to conclude.
A Neural Network: – is a type of machine learning that is made up of interconnected units (like neurons) that processes information by responding to external inputs, relaying information between each unit. The process requires multiple passes at the data to find connections and derive meaning from undefined data.
Deep learning: – uses huge neural networks with many layers of processing units, taking advantage of advances in computing power and improved training techniques to learn complex patterns in large amounts of data. Common applications include image and speech recognition.
Cognitive computing: – is a subfield of AI that strives for a natural, human-like interaction with machines. Using AI and cognitive computing, the ultimate goal is for a machine to simulate human processes through the ability to interpret images and speech – and then speak coherently in response.
Computer vision: – relies on pattern recognition and deep learning to recognize what’s in a picture or video. When machines can process, analyze and understand images, they can capture images or videos in real time and interpret their surroundings.
Natural language processing (NLP) : – is the ability of computers to analyze, understand and generate human language, including speech. The next stage of NLP is natural language interaction, which allows humans to communicate with computers using normal, everyday language to perform tasks.
Additionally, several technologies enable and support AI:
Graphical processing units: – are key to AI because they provide the heavy compute power that’s required for iterative processing. Training neural networks requires big data plus compute power.
The Internet of Things: – generates massive amounts of data from connected devices, most of it unanalyzed. Automating models with AI will allow us to use more of it.
Advanced algorithms: – are being developed and combined in new ways to analyze more data faster and at multiple levels. This intelligent processing is key to identifying and predicting rare events, understanding complex systems and optimizing unique scenarios.
APIs, or application processing interfaces: – are portable packages of code that make it possible to add AI functionality to existing products and software packages. They can add image recognition capabilities to home security systems and Q&A capabilities that describe data, create captions and headlines, or call out interesting patterns and insights in data.
Why is artificial intelligence important?
AI automates repetitive learning and discovery through data. But AI is different from hardware-driven, robotic automation. Instead of automating manual tasks, AI performs frequent, high-volume, computerized tasks reliably and without fatigue. For this type of automation, human inquiry is still essential to set up the system and ask the right questions.
AI adds intelligence to existing products. In most cases, AI will not be sold as an individual application. Rather, products you already use will be improved with AI capabilities, much like Siri was added as a feature to a new generation of Apple products. Automation, conversational platforms, bots and smart machines can be combined with large amounts of data to improve many technologies at home and in the workplace, from security intelligence to investment analysis.
AI adapts through progressive learning algorithms to let the data do the programming. AI finds structure and regularities in data so that the algorithm acquires a skill: The algorithm becomes a classifier or a predicator. So, just as the algorithm can teach itself how to play chess, it can teach itself what product to recommend next online. And the models adapt when given new data. Back propagation is an AI technique that allows the model to adjust, through training and added data, when the first answer is not quite right.
AI analyzes more and deeper data using neural networks that have many hidden layers. Building a fraud detection system with five hidden layers was almost impossible a few years ago. All that has changed with incredible computer power and big data. You need lots of data to train deep learning models because they learn directly from the data. The more data you can feed them, the more accurate they become.
AI achieves incredible accuracy though deep neural networks – which was previously impossible. For example, your interactions with Alexa, Google Search and Google Photos are all based on deep learning – and they keep getting more accurate the more we use them. In the medical field, AI techniques from deep learning, image classification and object recognition can now be used to find cancer on MRIs with the same accuracy as highly trained radiologists.
AI gets the most out of data. When algorithms are self-learning, the data itself can become intellectual property. The answers are in the data; you just have to apply AI to get them out. Since the role of the data is now more important than ever before, it can create a competitive advantage. If you have the best data in a competitive industry, even if everyone is applying similar techniques, the best data will win.
Artificial Intelligence We’re Using in Daily Life …
AI has a huge effect on our life, whether we’re aware of it or not, and its influence is likely to grow in the coming years. Here are some examples of artificial intelligence that we’re already using every day.
A robot has been granted citizenship (31-10-2017) in Saudi Arabia and it appears to already have more rights than the country’s women. The robot Sophia was created by Hong Kong-based company Hanson Robotics and it appeared at a technology conference in Saudi’s capital, Riyadh. It was able to appear on stage by itself without the permission of a male guardian and with its head and body uncovered.
Virtual Personal Assistants :- Siri, Google Now, and Cortana are all intelligent digital personal assistants on various platforms (iOS, Android, and Windows Mobile).
Video Games: – One of the instances of AI that most people are probably familiar with, video game AI has been used for a very long time—since the very first video games, in fact
Smart Cars : – You probably haven’t seen someone reading the newspaper while driving to work yet, but self-driving cars are moving closer and closer to reality; Google’s self-driving car project and Tesla’s “autopilot” feature are two examples that have been in the news lately.
Fraud Detection: – Have you ever gotten an email or a letter asking you if you made a specific purchase on your credit card? Many banks send these types of communications if they think there’s a chance that fraud may have been committed on your account, and want to make sure that you approve the purchase before sending money over to another company. Artificial intelligence is often the technology deployed to monitor for this type of fraud.
News Generation: – Did you know that artificial intelligence programs can write news stories? According to Wired, the AP, Fox, and Yahoo! all use AI to write simple stories like financial summaries, sports recaps, and fantasy sports reports. AI isn’t writing in-depth investigative articles, but it has no problem with very simple articles that don’t require a lot of synthesis.
Music and Movie Recommendation Services :- While they’re rather simple when compared to other AI systems, apps like Spotify, Pandora, and Netflix accomplish a useful task: recommending music and movies based on the interests you’ve expressed and judgments you’ve made in the past. By monitoring the choices you make and inserting them into a learning algorithm, these apps make recommendations that you’re likely to be interested in.
Smart Home Devices : – Many smart home devices now include the ability to learn your behavior patterns and help you save money by adjusting the settings on your thermostat or other appliances in an effort to increase convenience and save energy. For example, turning your oven on when you leave work instead of waiting to get home is a very convenient ability. A thermostat that knows when you’re home and adjusts the temperature accordingly can help you save money by not heating the house when you’re out.
Lighting is another place where you might see basic artificial intelligence; by setting defaults and preferences, the lights around your house (both inside and outside) might adjust based on where you are and what you’re doing; dimmer for watching TV, brighter for cooking, and somewhere in the middle for eating, for example. The uses of AI in smart homes are limited only by our imagination.
Where we use Artificial Intelligence?
Health Care: – AI applications can provide personalized medicine and X-ray readings. Personal health care assistants can act as life coaches, reminding you to take your pills, exercise or eat healthier.
Retail: – AI provides virtual shopping capabilities that offer personalized recommendations and discuss purchase options with the consumer. Stock management and site layout technologies will also be improved with AI.
Manufacturing: – AI can analyze factory IoT data as it streams from connected equipment to forecast expected load and demand using recurrent networks, a specific type of deep learning network used with sequence data.
Sports: – AI is used to capture images of game play and provide coaches with reports on how to better organize the game, including optimizing field positions and strategy.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence …
1. Error Reduction: – Artificial intelligence helps us in reducing the error and the chance of reaching accuracy with a greater degree of precision is a possibility. Artificial intelligence is applied in various studies such as exploration of space. Intelligent robots are fed with information and are sent to explore space. Since they are machines with metal bodies, they are more resistant and have greater ability to endure the space and hostile atmosphere. They are created and acclimatized in such a way that they cannot be modified or get disfigured or breakdown in the hostile environment.
2. Difficult Exploration: – Artificial intelligence and the science of robotics can be put to use in mining and other fuel exploration processes. Not only that, these complex machines can be used for exploring the ocean floor and hence overcoming the human limitations. Due to the programming of the robots, they can perform more laborious and hard work with greater responsibility. They do not wear out easily.
3. Daily Application: – Computed methods for automated reasoning, learning and perception have become a common phenomenon in our everyday lives. We have our lady Siri or Cortana to help us out. We are also hitting the road for long drives and trips with the help of GPS. Smartphone in an apt and every day is an example of the how we use artificial intelligence. In utilities, we find that they can predict what we are going to type and correct the human errors in spelling. That is machine intelligence at work. When we take a picture, the artificial intelligence algorithm identifies and detects the person’s face and tags the individuals when we are posting our photographs on the social media sites. Artificial Intelligence is widely employed by financial institutions and banking institutions to organize and manage data. Detection of fraud uses artificial intelligence in a smart card based system.
4. Digital Assistants: – Highly advanced organizations use ‘avatars’ which are replicas or digital assistants who can actually interact with the users, thus saving the need of human resources. For artificial thinkers, emotions come in the way of rational thinking are not a distraction at all. The complete absence of the emotional side, makes the robots think logically and take the right program decisions. Emotions are associated with moods that can cloud judgment and affect human efficiency. This is completely ruled out for machine intelligence.
5. Repetitive Jobs: – Repetitive jobs which are monotonous in nature can be carried out with the help of machine intelligence. Machines think faster than humans and can be put to multi-tasking. Machine intelligence can be employed to carry out dangerous tasks. Their parameters, unlike humans, can be adjusted. Their speed and time are calculation based parameters only. When humans play a computer game or run a computer-controlled robot, we are actually interacting with artificial intelligence. In the game we are playing, the computer is our opponent. The machine intelligence plans the game movement in response to our movements. We can consider gaming to be the most common use of the benefits of artificial intelligence.
6. Medical Applications: – In the medical field also, we will find the wide application of AI. Doctors assess the patients and their health risks with the help of artificial machine intelligence. It educates them about the side effects of various medicines. Medical professionals are often trained with the artificial surgery simulators. It finds a huge application in detecting and monitoring neurological disorders as it can simulate the brain functions. Robotics is used often in helping mental health patients to come out of depression and remain active. A popular application of artificial intelligence is radiosurgery. Radiosurgery is used in operating tumors and this can actually help in the operation without damaging the surrounding tissues.
7. No Breaks: – Machines, unlike humans, do not require frequent breaks and refreshments. They are programmed for long hours and can continuously perform without getting bored or distracted or even tired.
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence:
1. High Cost: –Creation of artificial intelligence requires huge costs as they are very complex machines. Their repair and maintenance require huge costs. They have software programs which need frequent up gradation to cater to the needs of the changing environment and the need for the machines to be smarter by the day. In the case of severe breakdowns, the procedure to recover lost codes and re-instating the system might require huge time and cost.
2. No Replicating Humans: –Intelligence is believed to be a gift of nature. An ethical argument continues, whether human intelligence is to be replicated or not. Machines do not have any emotions and moral values. They perform what is programmed and cannot make the judgment of right or wrong. They cannot take decisions if they encounter a situation unfamiliar to them. They either perform incorrectly or breakdown in such situations.
3. No Improvement with Experience: –Unlike humans, artificial intelligence cannot be improved with experience. With time, it can lead to wear and tear. It stores a lot of data but the way it can be accessed and used is very different from human intelligence. Machines are unable to alter their responses to changing environments. We are constantly bombarded by the question whether it is really exciting to replace humans with machines. In the world of artificial intelligence, there is nothing like working with a whole heart or passionately. Care or concerns are not present in the machine intelligence dictionary. There is no sense of belonging or togetherness or a human touch. They fail to distinguish between a hardworking individual and an inefficient individual.
4. No Original Creativity: –Do you want creativity or imagination? These are not the forte of artificial intelligence. While they can help you design and create, they are no match for the power of thinking that the human brain has or even the originality of a creative mind. Human beings are highly sensitive and emotional intellectuals. They see, hear, think and feel. Their thoughts are guided by the feelings which completely lacks in machines. The inherent intuitive abilities of the human brain cannot be replicated.
5. Unemployment: –Replacement of humans with machines can lead to large scale unemployment. Unemployment is a socially undesirable phenomenon. People with nothing to do can lead to the destructive use of their creative minds. Humans can unnecessarily be highly dependent on the machines if the use of artificial intelligence becomes rampant. Humans will lose their creative power and will become lazy. Also, if humans start thinking in a destructive way, they can create havoc with these machines. Artificial intelligence in wrong hands is a serious threat to mankind in general. It may lead to mass destruction. Also, there is a constant fear of machines taking over or superseding the humans.