What Is 5G, Exactly?
5G is a term used to describe the forthcoming fifth generation of mobile network technology. Right now, it doesn’t signify any particular type of technology. While 4G has become synonymous with LTE, there’s been no publicly agreed upon standard for 5G networks. However, a couple of likely technologies are emerging.
5G networks will use a type of encoding called OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), which is similar to the encoding that LTE uses. The air interface will be designed for much lower latency and greater flexibility than LTE, though.
The Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance defines the following requirements for 5G networks:
- Data rates of tens of megabits per second for tens of thousands of users
- 1 Gb per second simultaneously to many workers on the same office floor
- Several hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections for massive wireless sensor network
- Spectral efficiency significantly enhanced compared to 4G
- Coverage improved
- Signalling efficiency enhanced
- Latency reduced significantly compared to LTE.
5th generation of systems are driven by OFDM, MC-CDMA, LAS-CDMA, UWB, Network LMDS and IPV6. 5G networks have been designed for a smart world such as smart cities, smart healthcare, transportation and most important idea of IOT. In order to handle higher network demands, the network must be smart, efficient and cost effective. It should support mobility, better coverage, power efficiency, reliability and most importantly security.
How fast is 5G? Low latency, High capacity.
Besides raw speed, the other main benefits of 5G will be low latency and high capacity. Low latency means that not only will download and upload speeds be fast, but the response times for starting those data transfers will be similarly snappy. There’ll be less of a pause between pressing play on Netflix and that crisp 4K content starting to stream to your phone, in other words.
The other benefit relates to the biggest issue with current mobile network standards – a critical lack of bandwidth. The radio frequencies that our 3G and 4G networks operate on are overcrowded to say the least.
With more and more people and devices set to be connected over the next five years or so – 5G will likely be the network that has to handle the dawn of driverless cars – this will be a critical problem before too long. Whatever technology 5G employs, expect it to address this either through an all new spectrum, or through smarter use of the existing spectrum (only assigning the amount that’s needed for each task).
A realistic, nicely rounded final figure for 5G speeds, then, could be in the region of 10Gbps.
Generation Mobile Communication System
4G Vs 5G Generation
How does its work?
- Carrier Aggregation
Carrier aggregation is a technique used in LTE advanced to improve the system efficiency. In carrier aggregation, two or more carrier signals are aggregated to support wider bandwidth which allows even up to 100 MHz.
CA uses three techniques for aggregation:Intra-band contiguous: two carriers are transmitted at neighboring channels. Intra-band non contiguous: two carriers are transmitter with channel spacing.Inter-band: In this technique different LTE bands are used for transmission simultaneously.
- Small Cell Concept
In order to increase network efficiency, the cell is sub divided into micro and Pico cells. Spectrum reusability allows to adding more users in a small geographical area and handle network more efficiently.
- MIMO Concept
MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) is a transmission technology with the usage of multiple antennas for transmission and reception. Simultaneous data transfer is possible using this technology thus offer efficient data rate. The more the number of antennas, the more transmission and reception can be done.
- Wi-Fi off loading
Wi-fi offloading is one the main feature of the future networks. It allows the user to connect to network using wi-fi network and the cellular network can be allocated to other users. It would be suitable for some places where cellular network quality is poor and user still have the option to connect to the network without cellular reception.
- Device to device communication
D2D communication is technique where network authorize two adjacent devices communicate each other directly. Network will have the control over the devices and allows an operator to determine the traffic routing between direct and network path. During the absents of network, one devices can connect to another device.
- Cloud – Radio Network Access
C-RAN is a network technology used for effective communication with a centralized information processing carried out remotely within the cloud system. The signal will be processed at a remote location and the base stations will be connected with most efficient fiber optic connections. It gives lot of advantages in system implementation, maintenance and highly efficient.
When will we see 5G?
It’s still early days for 5G, but Ofcom thinks that you’ll be able to buy a 5G phone in 2020. Obviously any 5G release date is just an estimate, and other experts are predicting it may be 2021. Even technology-obsessed South Korea isn’t likely to see any 5G trials until 2017, and Verizon and AT&T are expected to start rolling out 5G networks in 2018 in the US.
In India, Nokia Networks is part of Telecommunications Standards Development Society which is working on 5G, and is in discussion with telecom operators to start 5G trials.However, Indian telcos are still investing in 4G technology to roll out the fourth generation networks and large parts of the country are yet to be covered under the high-speed data and voice services.
Sometime between 2022 – 2025 seems reasonable for 5G deployments in India.